Transport system improvements
Mode shift and demand management
Low-carbon fuels and energy vectors
Innovation and up-scaling
This category is for mitigation measures that address the entire transport system and closely related sectors. It covers planning, land use and infrastructure measures, but also considers transport system improvements, such as parking management, freight demand management and transport-related education activities.
National mobility plans
A national mobility plan provides a comprehensive long-term planning framework for the transport sector. It features a vision and timeframes for action at the national level. This parameter records any activities that focus on nationwide transport.
Sustainable urban mobility plans
A sustainable urban mobility plan (SUMP) is “a strategic plan designed to satisfy the mobility needs of people and businesses in cities and their surroundings for a better quality of life. It builds on existing planning practices and takes due consideration of integration, participation and evaluation principles”. If the document refers to a SUMP or an integrated approach on urban mobility, this is captured here.
General land use
This parameter captures land-use planning related to transport. The most important land use elements are density (of population and/or jobs), diversity (mix of uses), design (pedestrian quality, street network density), and distance to public transport.
Development density or intensiveness
This measure intends to develop compact cities by achieving high density, usage diversity and accessibility. It tries to avoid or reduce urban sprawl.
“Mixed-use” is an urban planning approach that combines several urban functions (living, working and shopping) in close proximity. One goal is to encourage short travel distances.
Street design standards
Street design can have a strong impact on walkability and network density. In contrast to the parameter about urban planning standards, this parameter captures standards with a specific focus on streets.
General infrastructure improvements
This parameter is for measures that outline general improvements in transport infrastructure or the transport system as a whole, without providing details about specific measures.
Expansion of infrastructure
Activities that aim to introduce new infrastructure or expand infrastructure for transport are captured by this parameter. If a measure is dedicated to a specific transport mode, then it might be captured under that specific parameter. Any general mention of expanding transport infrastructure is collected here.
General intermodality measures
Intermodality is the combination of different transport modes with the goal of enabling convenient, seamless transfer between them. Any general activities that highlight intermodality but do not specify specific actions are included here.
Multimodal freight interface
Multimodal freight interfaces allow goods to be transferred between different modes of transport.
General parking measures
This measure refers to actions that aim to improve parking management.
Park & ride facilities
Park and ride facilities are usually built outside a city, encouraging people to leave their private car and travel by public transport to their destination within the city.
General freight efficiency improvements
This parameter records general efficiency improvements in freight. If the document does not specify a specific activity or action that belongs to the other freight efficiency activities, then it is captured here.
This parameter is for measures that encourage reliance on high-capacity vehicles (trains, ships, etc.) or increase capacity of freight vehicles in order to achieve lower carbon intensity per ton transported.
General education and behavioral change
This parameter is for general educational activities and behavioral change related to transport, e.g. concerning the environmental impacts of private vehicle use, the benefits of electric vehicles, etc.
Ecodriving refers to educational measures that encourage more efficient driving practices. Such practices can reduce fuel consumption.
Sustainable transport capacity building
“Capacity building” refers in general to the training of individuals and organizations to acquire new skills and knowledge on a specific topic. “Sustainable transport capacity building” refers more specifically to the acquisition of skills to plan and implement safe, sustainable, affordable and resilient mobility systems.
This parameter captures mention of public awareness campaigns related to transport.
General transport planning
This parameter records any general mention of transport planning.
This category is for measures that encourage more environmentally friendly transport modes or that reduce overall demand for motorised transport. It includes several pricing-related measures (taxes, subsidies and other economic instruments).
Freight transport shifting to rail or inland waterways
In freight transport, intermodality often entails a shift to less carbon-intensive transport modes (e.g. rail and waterborne transport). This parameter records any actions that support a shift of road freight to rail or waterways.
General transport demand management (TDM)
This parameter records any general mention of activities focusing on reducing demand for motorized transport.
Commuter trip reduction policies
This parameter refers to the management of circumstances and incentives for employee commuter travel and working arrangements to reduce traffic and automobile use.
Alternative work schedules (flextime, staggered shifts, compressed work week)
This measure looks at implementing variable work hours in order to reduce traffic congestion during rush hour and reduce commuting times. Any mention of flexible work hours, alternative work approaches and staggered shifts are included under this parameter.
The use of telecommunications for remote work as a substitute for physical travel is captured under this parameter.
General economic instruments
Economic instruments are financial and other economic incentives to integrate environmental costs and benefits into the budgets of households and firms.
An emissions trading system (ETS) or cap-and-trade system is a pricing mechanism for emitted greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike a direct carbon tax, where the unit price of CO2 is fixed, under an emissions trading scheme, the price per tonne of CO2 varies. The overall amount of emissions is fixed for a given period of time (e.g. annually). Entities are allocated a set amount of CO2 emissions allowances, or quotas, and trade emissions with each another. Those able to reduce their emissions below their allowance level can trade them with those emitting in excess of their allowance.
Financial instruments to support decarbonisation
This parameter records GHG emission reductions resulting from the use of any financial instruments. Financial instruments that aim to support decarbonization include climate finance solutions, investments in EVs, green bonds, etc.
Green public procurement
Green procurement refers to activities by stakeholders to take environmental impacts into account when procuring goods and services. Applied to transport, it means that a public authority can develop green procurement regulations that, for example, only allow the purchase of zero-emission vehicles. Such measures can support the transition to cleaner public vehicle fleets and more sustainable consumption.
Feebate systems impose a fee on vehicles with high CO2 emissions or fuel consumption (i.e. low fuel economy) and provide a rebate to vehicles with low CO2 emissions or fuel consumption (i.e. high fuel economy).
General transport taxes
Any actions that mention transport-related taxes or surcharges without providing further details are collected here.
National and state governments impose taxes on the sale of fuel. Every fuel type is taxed differently. One aim of higher fuel taxes is to reduce fuel consumption and encourage more efficient transport modes.
This parameter refers to measures that link taxes on vehicle purchase and ownership to carbon emissions.
This parameter includes fees that are applied to vehicle imports. For example, the purchase of private vehicles can be regulated through a surcharge on their importation.
Road charging and tolls
This parameter refers to surcharges applied to general or specific road use, including in particular highway tolls.
The demand for mobility can be influenced by introducing parking pricing. A fee for on-street parking can motivate people to leave their cars at home or to use park-and-ride facilities outside the city.
Company car taxation and treatment of business travel
This parameter records changes in the way company vehicles are taxed, including financial disincentives to business travel.
General transport subsidies
Any measures that discuss subsidies for transport in a general manner are covered here.
Fossil fuel subsidy removal
Energy subsidies are used by governments to lower the cost of producing or consuming fossil fuels. Eliminating such subsidies can help to reduce reliance on fossil fuels. This parameter records measures and actions in this area.
General logistic avoid measures
Actions that reduce the need for freight transport without mentioning a specific approach or policies are captured by this parameter.
Innovations to reduce freight demand
Innovative measures and new technologies (e.g. 3D printing) that avoid freight transport are recorded here.
Voluntary programs to reduce emissions in logistics
As freight is mostly transported by private companies, the coordination and facilitation of voluntary programs can support the introduction of efficient freight transport practices. For example, a government can design a reward scheme for logistic companies that promise to use zero-emission vehicles.
Freight: shared data or digital platforms
This measure records any actions that mention joint digital platforms and data sharing by freight companies.
General access regulations
Any general measures that aim to regulate access by certain types of vehicles.
Low emission zones
Low emission zones are areas that limit vehicle operation based on their emission of pollutants. Such zones, which are often in urban areas, may prohibit such vehicles entirely or assess a fee.
Car access restrictions zones
This parameter covers measures that restrict vehicle use in designated zones. One method is to restrict operation to certain weekdays based on license plate number.
General public transport improvement
This parameter covers all activities that aim to improve the public transport system.
Public transport integration and expansion
Activities that aim to expand public transport or integrate different public transport services into a single system are covered under this parameter.
Express lanes/ public transport priority
This parameter looks at actions that give priority to public transport over other modes. Examples include transit signal priorities, access priority, intelligent transport systems and express lanes.
Bus rapid transit (BRT) is a bus system with high speed, capacity, punctuality and operating flexibility. Common characteristics of a BRT system include the use of bus-only lanes, advance ticketing, and articulated buses.
This parameter refers to measures that integrate different public transport services and/or combine payment methods for shared mobility of buses and trains.
General active mobility
General measures that refer to walking and cycling are included here.
Any action that specifically mentions improving walking is included here.
Any action that specifically mentions improving cycling is included here.
Enhanced cycle provision
The construction of cycling infrastructure (e.g. exclusive bicycle lanes, cycling lanes connecting cities, bicycle parking) is included under this parameter.
This parameter looks at infrastructure measures related to walking, including sidewalk construction and indoor walking paths that connect buildings and transport terminals.
This category is for mitigation measures related to vehicle fuel policies, vehicle improvements or alternative fuels.
General fuel improvement policies
This parameter includes general actions to improve vehicle fuels in the absence of further details about the policy.
Fuel blending mandates
Conventional diesel and gasoline can be mixed with less carbon-intense fuels. Many national governments set blending mandates (for example, 10% or 20% of diesel has to be biofuel). Any general biofuel blending mandates are covered here.
Fuel quality improvement
A high-quality fuel contains very low levels of sulfur. Countries set fuel quality standards in order to guarantee fuel quality. This parameter covers any mention of clean fuels or better fuel quality in the transport sector.
General vehicle improvements
This parameter identifies any general vehicle improvement measures that are included in the document.
Inspection and maintenance
A well-maintained vehicle can ensure higher energy efficiency. This parameter considers measures that pertain to vehicle inspections or maintenance.
Vehicle air pollution emission standards
This parameter captures more stringent emission standards that regulate air pollution exhaust emission such as the EURO standards Euro1-6
Vehicle efficiency standards
This parameter captures measures designed to improve vehicle efficiency or lower transport emissions.
Vehicle restrictions (import/age/sale)
This parameter encompasses various restrictions to vehicle ownership or purchase, including import bans on older vehicles or sale restrictions on particularly polluting vehicles.
Vehicle scrappage scheme
In order to support the transition to cleaner, more efficient vehicles, governments may provide incentives when an owner scraps their current vehicle (rather than reselling it).
Low emission vehicle purchase incentives
This parameter refers to purchase incentives granted to consumers for lower emission vehicles (excluding electric and hybrid vehicles).
General alternative fuels
Any general reference to the use of alternative fuels in the transport sector is recorded here.
This parameter refers to any measures that link biofuels with diesel.
This parameter is for measures that refer to liquified petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquified natural gas (LNG) in the transport sector.
A relatively new fuel in the transport sector, hydrogen is used in fuel-cell electric vehicles. Green hydrogen that is produced using renewable electricity is seen as one important component of the energy transition in transport.
Use of renewable energy
Renewable energy for transport looks at the use of biofuels, green hydrogen and green electricity. This parameter captures any actions that make a direct link between transport and renewables.
General transport labels
This parameter refers to measures requiring publication of information on environment impacts. The goal is to create transparency about the greenhouse gas emissions caused by a vehicle, fuel or activity. This parameter encompasses any general measures that do not describe a specific labeling requirement.
Green freight labels
This parameter identifies measures designed to introduce or expand the labeling of goods (for example, where they come from and how they have been transported).
Vehicle labels are placed on new vehicles in order to show expected average fuel consumption.
Fuel labels show the carbon intensity and quality of a given fuel.
This category includes innovations in aviation, shipping, shared mobility and micromobility (areas in which few mitigation options exist).
General innovations and digitalization
This parameter includes activities that mention the use of innovation and digitalization to improve the efficiency of transport.
General aviation improvement
Any general measures that focus on the aviation sector are referred to here.
Aircraft fleet renovation
Newer aircraft are generally more energy efficient. This parameter refers to activities designed to renew the aircraft fleet or only allow newer aircraft to operate.
CO2 certification systems aim to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by airports and ground operations. This parameter is for initiatives designed to improve the energy efficiency and carbon footprint of airports.
Environmental capacity constraints on airports
Constraints to airport development or operations are included here.
Jet fuel policies
This parameter refers to policies designed to lower the carbon intensity of fuels for aviation or to introduce alternative fuel sources, including biofuel blending mandates.
Air traffic management
Any measures that focus on improving air traffic are referred to here.
General shipping improvement
This parameter refers to any general measures that target shipping, maritime transport or inland navigation.
Support on-shore power and electric charging facilities in ports
While low-carbon fuels for ships are still being explored, there are already several solutions for providing electricity to vessel when docked. This is also commonly known as “cold ironing”.
Port infrastructure improvements
This parameter refers to improvements to ports and other shore-based facilities.
Ship efficiency improvements
The parameter identifies actions that aim to improve the energy efficiency of ships.
General technical improvements
This parameter identifies general improvements that rely on engineering solutions or technical approaches (such as improved vehicle design or components).
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)
Intelligent transport systems harness technology to improve the management and operation of transport services. Relevant technologies include sensors, wireless communications, notification systems and other ICT solutions.
This parameter identifies measures that discuss self-driving vehicles, artificial intelligence and any other mechanisms that support the automation of passenger and freight transport.
Data and modeling improvements
This parameter identifies any measures related to transport data (e.g. collection, analysis or application) as well as models designed to predict traffic flows or transport demand growth.
General shared mobility
This parameter includes general measures in the area of shared mobility.
This parameter identifies actions that support the implementation of collective on-demand services.
Micromobility refers to electric personal transportation devices, such as electric kick-scooters and other electric-powered devices.
General Mobility as a Service
Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) refers to solutions that integrate several mobility options through a digital platform that allows trips to be planned, booked and paid for.